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Tomato Pest and Disease Control Activities Timetable:

Stage Pests Disease
Planting to Prebloom Cutworms, Beetles, Flea Beetles, Aphids Damping Off, bacterial Specks, Bacterial Spots, Curly Top Virus, Tomato Spotted Wilt
Bloom to early fruit set (up to 1 inch diameter fruit) Aphids, Armyworms, Whiteflies, Loopers, Thrips, Fusrium Wilt, Tomato Spotted wilt, Verticilium wilt, Curly top
Late fruit set (1 inch fruit to first red fruit) Tomato Fruit worm, Ahpdis, Armyworm, White flies, Thrips, Bacterial canker, Late blight, Blossom End Rot,
First Red fruit (preharvest) Whiteflies, Leafminers, Cutworms, Tomato psyllid, Flea beetles, Ahpids, Fruitworms  

General Fungicides used in Tomato:

Fungicide Technical Activity Recommendation Mode of Action Resistance Potential
Azoxystrobin Contact and Systemic Powdery Mildew, Single Site High
Bacillus Subtilis (Sutlex) Contact Xanthomonas, Late Blight, Early Blight, Powdery Mildew, Phytopthora, Fusrium, Verticilium, Root Rot Multi Site Low
Chlorothalonil (Kavach) Contact Late Blight, Early Blight Multi Site Low
Copper (Oxychloride and Hydroxide) (Blue Copper, Kocide 101 Contact Late Blight, Early Blight, Bacterial Spot Multi Site Low
Dimethomorph (Acrobat) Systemic     Medium
Famoxadone/cymoxanil Systemic   Multi Site Low
Mancozeb (M-45) Contact Late Blight, Early Blight, Bacterial Spot Multi Site Low
Maneb (Z-78) Contact Late Blight, Early Blight, Bacterial Spot Multi Site Low
Mefenoxam (Redomil Gold) Systemic Phytopthora Root Rot, Single Site High
Myclobutanil Systemic Powdery Mildew, Single Site High
Sulfur Contact Powdery Mildew, Multi Site Low

A brief description of tomato

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. World tomato production in 2001 was about 105 million tons of fresh fruit from an estimated 3.9 million ha. As it is a relatively short duration crop and gives a high yield, it is economically attractive and the area under cultivation is increasing daily.

Tomato belongs to the Solanaceae family. This family also includes other well-known species, such as potato, tobacco, peppers and eggplant (aubergine).

Tomato has its origin in the South American Andes. The cultivated tomato was brought to Europe by the Spanish conquistadors in the sixteenth century and later introduced from Europe to southern and eastern Asia, Africa and the Middle East. More recently, wild tomato has been distributed into other parts of South America and Mexico.

Botanical description of tomato plant

  • Root : Vigorous tap root system that grows to a depth of 50 cm or more. The main root produces dense lateral and adventitious roots.
  • Stem : Growth habit ranges between erect and prostrate. It grows to a height of 2-4 m. The stem is solid, coarse, hairy and glandular.
  • Leaf : Spirally arranged, 15-50 cm long and 10-30 cm wide. Leaflets are ovate to oblong, covered with glandular hairs. Small pinnates appear between larger leaflets. Inflorescence is clustered and produces 6-12 flowers. Petiole is 3-6 cm.
  • Flower : Bisexual, regular and 1.5-2 cm in diameter. They grow opposite or between leaves. Calyx tube is short and hairy, sepals are persistent. Usually 6 petals up to 1 cm in length, yellow and reflexed when mature. 6 stamens, anthers are bright yellow in colour surrounding the style with an elongated sterile tip. Ovary is superior and with 2-9 compartments. Mostly self- but partly also crosspollinated. Bees and bumblebees are the most important pollinators.
  • Fruit : Fleshy berry, globular to oblate in shape and 2-15 cm in diameter. The immature fruit is green and hairy. Ripe fruits range from yellow, orange to red. It is usually round, smooth or furrowed.
  • Seeds : Numerous, kidney or pear shaped. They are hairy, light brown 3-5 mm long and 2-4 mm wide. The embryo is coiled up in the endosperm. Approximate weight of 1000 seeds is 2.5 – 3.5 g.

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