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Onion and Garlic Relative Toxicities to Insecticides and Miticides Used in Onion and Garlic to Natural Enemies and Honey Bees

Common name (trade name) Mode of action1 Selectivity2 (affected groups) Predatory mites3 General predators4 Parasites4 hHoney bees5 Duration of impact to natural enemies6
azadirachtin (Neemix) un broad (insects, mites) M L/M L/M III short
chlorpyrifos (Lorsban) 1B broad (insects, mites) M H H I7 moderate
cypermethrin (Ammo) 3 broad (insects, mites) H H H I moderate
cyromazine (Trigard) 17 narrow (leafminers) L L L III none
diazinon–foliar 1B broad (insects, mites) L H H I moderate to long
diazinon–granular 1B L L L IV short
lambda-cyhalothrin (Warrior) 3 broad (plant bugs, beetles, caterpillars) H H H I moderate
methomyl (Lannate) 1A broad (insects , mites) H H H III moderate
methyl parathion (Penncap-M) 1B I
permethrin (Ambush, Pounce) 3 broad (insects, mites) L H H I long
pyrethrin/rotenone (Pyrellin E.C.) 3/— III short
spinetoram (Radiant) 5 narrow (caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, scales, leafminers) M M9 L/M III moderate8
spinosad (Entrust, Success) 5 narrow (thrips, leafminers) M M 9 L/M III short to moderate
zeta-cypermethrin (Mustang) 3 broad (insects, mites) H M M I moderate

H = high    M = moderate     L = low     — = no information

1 Rotate chemicals with a different mode-of-action Group number, and do not use products with the same mode-of-action Group number more than twice per season to help prevent development of resistance. For example, the organophosphates have a Group number of 1B; chemicals with a 1B Group number should be alternated with chemicals that have a Group number other than 1B. Mode of action Group numbers are assigned by IRAC (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee). For additional information, see their Web site at http://www.irac-online.org/.

2 Selectivity:Broadmeans it affects most groups of insects and mites;narrowmeans it affects only a few specific groups.

3 Generally, toxicites are to western predatory mite,Galendromus occidentalis.

4 Toxicities are averages of reported effects and should be used only as a general guide. Actual toxicity of a specific chemical depends on the species of predator or parasite, environmental conditions, and application rate.

5 Ratings are as follows: I-Do not apply to blooming plants; II-Apply only during late evening; III-Apply only during late evening, night, or early morning; and IV-Apply at any time with reasonable safety to bees. For more information, see How to Reduce Bee Poisoning From Pesticides(700 KB, PDF), Pacific Northwest Extension Publication PNW591.

6Duration:Shortmeans hours to days;moderatemeans days to 2 weeks; andlongmeans many weeks or months.

7 If rate is 0.05 lb a.i./acre or less, rating is III.

8 Residual is moderate if solution is between pH of 7 to 8.

9 Toxic against some natural enemies (predatory thrips, syrphid fly and lacewing larvae, beetles) when sprayed and up to 5-7 days after, especially for syrphid fly larvae.

Onion and Garlic General Properties of Fungicides
Common name (trade name) Chemical class Activity Mode of action(FRAC1) Resistance potential
azoxystrobin (Amistar/Quadris) QoI2 contact, systemic single-site (11) high
chlorothalonil (Applause, Bravo, Echo) aromatic nitrile contact multi-site (M4) low
copper inorganic contact multi-site (M1) low
fenamidone (Reason) QoI2 contact & systemic single-site (11) high
iprodione (Rovral) dicarboximide systemic (local) multi-site (M1) low
maneb carbamate (EBDC) contact multi-site (M3) low
mefenoxam (Ridomil Gold) acylalanine systemic single-site (4) high
pyraclostrobin (Cabrio) QoI2 contact & systemic single-site (11) high
tebuconazole (Folicur) DMI3-triazole systemic (local) single-site (3) high

1 Group numbers are assigned by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) according to different modes of actions (for more information, see http://www.frac.info/). Fungicides with a different group number are suitable to alternate in a resistance management program. In California, make no more than one application of fungicides with mode of action Group numbers 1, 4, 9, 11, or 17 before rotating to a fungicide with a different mode of action Group number; for fungicides with other Group numbers, make no more than two consecutive applications before rotating to fungicide with a different mode of action Group number.

2 QoI = quinone outside inhibitor (strobilurin).

3 DMI = demethylation (sterol) inhibitor.

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