आले,हळद लागवड पध्दतीलागवड पध्दती I पिक संरक्षण

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is one of the important spices grown in India. Ginger of commerce is the dried rhizome. It is marketed in different forms such as raw ginger, dry ginger, bleached dry ginger, ginger powder, ginger oil, ginger oleoresin, gingerale, ginger candy, ginger beer, brined ginger, ginger wine, ginger squash, ginger flakes etc. Climate and soil.

Ginger is cultivated in almost all states in India. Kerala is the major ginger growing state. Other major ginger growing states are Orissa, Meghalaya, Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka. Ginger grows in warm and humid climate. It is mainly cultivated in the tropics from sea level to an altitude of above 1500 MSL and it can be grown both under rainfed and irrigated conditions. For successful cultivation of the crop, a moderate rainfall at the sowing time till the rhizomes sprout, fairly heavy and well distributed showers during the growing period and dry weather for about a month before harvesting are necessary. Ginger thrives best in well drained soils like sandy or clay loam, red loam or lateritic loam. A friable loam rich in humus is ideal. However, being an exhausting crop it may not be desirable to grow ginger in the same site year after year.

Maintenance of buffer zone

In order to cultivate ginger organically, a buffer zone of 25 to 50 feet is to be left all around from the conventional farm, depending upon the location of the farm. The produce from this buffer zone belt shall not be treated as organic. Being an annual crop, the conversion period required will be two years. Ginger can be cultivated organically as an inter or mixed crop provided all the other crops are grown following organic methods. It is desirable to include a leguminous crop in rotation with ginger. Ginger-banana-legume or ginger-vegetable-legume can be adopted.

Sources of planting material

Carefully preserved seed rhizomes free from pests and diseases which are collected from organically cultivated farms can be used for planting. However, to begin with seed material from high yielding local varieties may be used in the absence of organically produced seed materials. Seed rhizomes should not be treated with any chemicals. The seed rate varies from region to region and with method of cultivation adopted. The seed rate varies from 1500- 2500 kg per hectare.

Preparation of land and planting

While preparing the land, minimum tillage operations may be adopted. Beds of 15 cm height, I m width and of convenient length may be prepared giving at least 50 cm spacing between beds. Solarisation of the beds is beneficial in checking the multiplication of pests and disease causing organisms. Solarisation is a technique by which polythene sheets are covered over moist beds of the field, reaching all the sides and exposing to sun for a period of 20-30 days. The polythene sheets used for soil solarisation should be kept away safely after the work is completed.

At the time of planting, apply 25g powdered neem cake and mix well with the soil in each pit taken at a spacing of 20-25 cm within and between rows. Seed rhizomes may be put in shallow pits and mixed with well rotten cattle manure or compost mixed with Trichoderma, an antagonistic (Parasitic) fungi (10g compost inoculated with Trichoderma). The best time for planting in West Coast is during the first fortnight of May with the receipt of monsoon showers. Under irrigated conditions, it can be planted well in advance during the middle of February or early March.

Cultural practices

Mulching the ginger beds with green leaves is an essential operation to enhance germination of seed rhizomes and to prevent washing off of soil due to heavy rain. This also helps to add organic matter to the soil and conserve moisture during the later part of the cropping seasons. The first mulching is to be done with green leaves @ 10-12 t/ha at the time of planting. It is to be repeated @ 5 t/ha at 40th and 90th day after planting. Use of "Lantana camara" and Vitex negundo as mulch may reduce the infestation of shoot borer. Cow dung slurry or liquid manure may be poured on the bed after each mulching to enhance microbial activity and nutrient availability. Weeding may be carried out depending on the intensity of weed growth. Such materials may be used for mulching. Proper drainage channels are to be provided in the inter rows to drain off stagnant water.

Manuring

Application of well rotten cow dung or compost @ 5-6 t/ha may be made as a basal dose while planting the rhizomes in the pits. In addition, application of neem cake @ 2 t/ha is also desirable.

Plant protection

Pests

Shoot borer is the major pest infesting ginger. Regular field surveillance and adoption of phytosanitary measures are necessary for pest management. It appears during July -October period. Spot out the shoots infested by the borer and cut open the shoot and pick out the caterpillar and destroy. Spray neem oil (0.5%) at fortnightly intervals if found necessary. Light traps will be useful in attracting and collecting the adult moths.

Diseases

Soft rot or rhizome rot is a major disease of ginger. While selecting the area for ginger cultivation care should be taken to see that the area is well drained as water stagnation pre- disposes the plants to infection. Hence provide adequate drainage. Select seed rhizomes from disease free areas since this disease is seed borne. Solarisation of soil done at the time of bed preparation can reduce the fungus inoculum. However, if the disease is noticed, the affected clumps are to be removed carefully along with the soil surrounding the rhizome to reduce the spread. Trichoderma may be applied at the time of planting and subsequently if necessary.

Restricted use of Bordeaux mixture (1%) in disease prone areas may be made to control it as spot application.

Harvesting and post harvest operations

The crop is ready to harvest in about eight to ten months depending upon the maturity of the variety. When fully mature leaves turn yellow and start drying up gradually. Clumps are lifted carefully with a spade or digging fork and rhizomes are separated from dried leaves, roots and adhering soil. The average yield of fresh ginger per hectare varies with varieties ranging from 15 to 25 tonnes.

For making vegetable ginger, harvesting is done from the 6th month onwards. The rhizomes are thoroughly washed in water twice or thrice after harvest and sun-dried for a day.

For preparing dry ginger the produce is kept soaked in water overnight. Rhizomes are then rubbed well to clean them. After cleaning, rhizomes are removed from the water and the outer skin is removed with a bamboo splinter or wooden knife having pointed ends. Iron knife is not recommended, as colour will fade. In order to get rid of the last bit of the skin or dirt, the dry rhizomes are rubbed together. The peeled rhizomes are washed and dried in the sun uniformly for one week. Rhizomes are to be dried to a moisture level of 11% and they are stored properly to avoid infestation by storage pests. Storage of dry ginger for longer periods is not desirable. The yield of dry ginger is 16-25 percent of the fresh ginger depending upon the variety and location where the crop is grown.

Burning of sulphur for processing ginger is not allowed.

Preservation of seed rhizomes

The rhizomes to be used as seed material should be preserved carefully. The indigenous practices like spreading layers of leaves of Glycosmis pentaphylla being followed by farmers can very well be adopted for this purpose. In order to get good germination, the seed rhizomes are to be stored properly in pits under shade. For seed materials, big and healthy rhizomes from disease-free plants are selected immediately after harvest. For this purpose, healthy and disease-free clumps are marked in the field when the crop is 68 months old and still green. Seed rhizomes are stored in pits of convenient size made inside the shed to protect from the sun and rain. Walls of the pits may be coated with cow dung paste. Seed rhizomes are stored in these pits in layers along with well-dried sand/saw dust (i.e. put one layer of seed rhizomes, then put 2 cm thick layer of sand/saw dust). Sufficient gap is to be left at the top of the pits for adequate aeration. Seed rhizomes in pits need inspection once in twenty days to remove shrivelled and disease affected rhizomes. Seed rhizomes can also be stored in pits dug in the ground under the shade of a tree provided there is no chance for water to enter the pits. In some areas, the rhizomes are loosely heaped over a layer of sand or paddy husk and covered with dry leaves in a thatched shed.

Source:Spice Board of India

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